In this article
- How Do Adderall and Focalin Work? And Do They Affect Brain Energy Levels?
- How does Adderall work?
- How does Focalin work?
- Will Adderall or Focalin work for me during my exams?
- Adderall and Focalin XR Side Effects
- Focalin XR vs Adderall Or Adderall vs Focalin–Which One Works Best?
- Any Alternatives? Generic Forms Of Energy Pills That Work Like Adderall
Focalin XR is a CII federally controlled drug prescribed for ADHD, treatment as well as Adderall that is similarly used for this pathology. Both are central nervous system stimulants, which might seem strange when attempting to ameliorate hyperactivity symptoms. So why and how do Adderall and Focalin work and what is the meaning of the letters XR after both drug type names?
How Do Adderall and Focalin Work? And Do They Affect Brain Energy Levels?
Both Focalin and Adderall work through stimulation of neurotransmitter release inside the brain synapses and the levels of extracellular messaging hormones. Both are controlled by the FDA and have countless contraindications. Even with these warnings, many choose to administer them without a prescription, purchasing these potent drugs from illegal, counterfeit overseas sources like China, Indonesia, Mexico and Eastern Europe.
While these drugs are readily prescribed to children and adolescents unable to concentrate for any length of time and with a diagnosis of ADHD, it remains to be seen what the effect of long-term use have on the developing young brain. The direct effects are most definitely proven by countless papers, yet the effects over decades have little available literature. This makes the use of regulated neurostimulants by the student population worrying.
How does Adderall work?
Adderall contains four salt forms of amphetamine: dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate and amphetamine (D,L)-aspartate monohydrate. The XR form also contains an immediate release, and a delayed release drug-bead for prolonged action, while Adderall IR only contains the former of the two. These are enveloped in gelatin capsules which contain edible inks, kosher gelatin, and titanium dioxide. In addition, colorings are added to differentiate the various doses.
It is strange that the published drug notes state that the “mode of therapeutic action in ADHD is not known” and that the action of the amphetamines in Adderall is “thought” to block norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake and increase their extracellular levels through non-catacholemine sympathomimetic amine action and monoamine oxidase inhibition. This uncertainty of action seems the equivalent of folk medicine traditions. However, ADHD symptoms do improve with administration and concentration levels in young people are heightened. Half of each dose is excreted, unused, in the urine.
How does Focalin work?
Focalin contains dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidine acetate hydrochloride) in combination with one retarded and one immediate release drug-bead. The primary differences between Adderall’s quadruple amphetamine salts and Focalin’s methylphenidate are that the former works through dopamine and norepinephrine transporter, monoamine oxidase (MAO), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) inhibition. The single Focalin ingredient also inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, but in addition is a serotonin type 1A receptor agonist while, instead of blocking MAO, it only redistributes VMAT-2. Methylphenidate might also be involved in glutamate and opioid systems. Further clarification of the proven effects follows:
- Dopamine inhibition: In ADHD, the patient’s own wording of symptoms include “wiggly minds” or “grasshopper thoughts”. Dopamine has a strong relationship with working memory and the ability to concentrate. It also lessens braking behavior leading to overt spontaneity and reactivity to stimuli. Through blocking dopamine receptor vesicles in the nerve synapse, it can relieve these symptoms and permit focus.
- Norepinephrine inhibition: Adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine in high-stress situations. It reduces the flow of blood to organs through vasoconstriction so the heart can pump more effectively, which is one reason these drugs have so many contraindications. In ADHD abnormal catecholamine receptor stimulation increases the excitatory state where the focus becomes difficult. Through the inhibition of norepinephrine, fewer symptoms remain.
- MAO inhibitors (MAOI): Outer mitochondrial membrane-bound flavoproteins monoamine oxidase A and B regulate neurotransmitters, but recent evidence points only to MAO-B as integral to ADHD pathology, at least in the Indo-Caucasoid population. Inhibition of MAO receptors reduces hyper-excitatory states.
- VMAT-2 inhibition and redistribution: This membrane protein transports–for the purposes of this topic only–dopamine and norepinephrine into synaptic vesicles from the cytosol surrounding the synaptic gap. While inhibition concerns the blocking of specific neurotransmitter receptors in the synaptic membrane, redistribution changes concentrations of the available neurotransmitter circulating close to the synaptic gap.
- Serotonin agonistic effect: Rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) can cause fewer available serotonin molecules in nerve pathways. As serotonin is known as the ‘happy’ neurotransmitter this may explain the cause of aggression in ADHD subjects.
Will Adderall or Focalin work for me during my exams?
These drugs will have a positive effect on concentration and focus levels; however, the side effects of these medications are expansive and often frightening. While prescription medications are supported by pre- and post-treatment blood analyzes and full medical checkups, those taking online (possibly fake) forms are putting their lives at serious risks. As research has also not yet been able to put forward large cohort results of long-term ADHD pharmaceutical ingestion, what these will do to the developing young brain is yet to be decided. Adderall and Focalin generic or otherwise, and generic Focalin XR vs Adderall XR are notorious for their long lists of side effects.
Adderall and Focalin XR Side Effects
- Sudden death, stroke and myocardial infarction
- Hypertension and tachycardia
- Visual disturbances
- Tics (Adderall)
- Exacerbated existing psychiatric symptoms
- High potential for dependence and abuse
- Peripheral vasculopathy
- Suppressed growth in infants, kindergarten and school-age children
- Anaphylactic shock (allergy)
- Jeopardous interactions with other medications
Focalin XR vs Adderall Or Adderall vs Focalin–Which One Works Best?
With very similar mechanisms of action, both drugs work well for ADHD but relatively few studies show their effects when used as nootropics; these exist but are very limited in participants. If the question is how long does Focalin XR last or Adderall last, the answer is anywhere between 4.5—7 hours. This term depends on personal metabolism, health and urgency of symptoms. The additional characteristic of serotonin agonist in Focalin may give it a slight edge in the successful treatment of aggressive forms of ADHD.
Any Alternatives? Generic Forms Of Energy Pills That Work Like Adderall
Safe Adderall alternatives can be found by looking at these drugs actions and finding a natural substitute for each action while providing optimum environmental, dietary and fitness as a sound building block. Sometimes, these three keystones will themselves have the desired result.
- Natural dopamine inhibitor: Moonseed (Menispermum canadense), Magnolia bark, Graviola fruit (from Annona muricata), Turkey corn (Corydalis cava).
- Natural norepinephrine inhibitor: Tyrosine, Curcuma.
- Natural MAOI: Curcuma, Passion flower, Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), Syrian rue (Peganum harmala)
- Natural VMAT-2 inhibitor: Lobelia (Lobelia inflata/Indian tobacco)
- Natural serotonin agonist: Panax ginseng, St. John’s Wort (interacts with various medications), Kratom (Mitragyna Speciosa).
It must now be obvious that finding energy pills that work like Adderall or a natural alternative to Adderall without the horrific side effects is the best choice, especially for those wanting to cram for quizzes, university diplomas or work that requires gigantic focus. Not only buying contraband pills dangerous as you never know what is in the box, but even the original medicine should never be taken without the prescription.